Skip to main content

Middle East Studies-A Reflection:Riches Beneath the Earth

Jenkins Macedo
Prof. Mohamed Eskandari
Chapter 6 Reaction Paper
March 14 2010

Riches Beneath the Earth

The Middle East is well noted for its riches in natural minerals deposited in the region as a result of geologic processes over the period of Earth’s History. This chapter is focused on the enormous wealth of the region in the form of petroleum, natural gas resources in the form of associated and non-associated gases, which add on the region’s historical development and influences on the global economy, geopolitics, cultures and development. The presence of natural minerals and gases in the Middle East are associated with the deposition of sediments throughout geologic time scale, which are directly linked to the movement of oceanic and continental plates through the process of plate tectonics.
The chapter also discussed the riches beneath the earth’s surface in several sub-headings such as the historical development of petroleum in the region, patterns of reserves associated with each country, the influences associated with the production of petroleum and comparisons of the production of petroleum in each country in the Middle East. Also, the chapter discussed the major oil producing facilities in the region, which include but not limited to pipelines, terminals and refineries. Also, markets and marketing are also important components of the chapter as it involves geopolitical, political, cultural, and economic and social influences in the region and globally. A significant part of the chapter dealt touched on the formation and operation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which was established in September, 1960 as a result of a meeting held in Baghdad to manage and control the prices of oil from the region and other members of the organization. As a result of the Arab-Israeli war of 1967, the formation of a parallel sister organization basically composed of all the Arab nations in the region was established and this group is known as the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). The last section of the chapter discussed other minerals that are essentially found in the region which also have both local and global significance. Such minerals are classified as solid fuels, metals, and nonmetal.
Over the last few centuries, natural resources in the form of petroleum, natural gas and petroleum products constitute vast amount of the items produced from the region. At the 1999 and 2001 average production rate, the Middle East is able to produce petroleum products for the next ninety-two years. There has been no recent discovery of new oil fields in the region as of recent years. As such, oil-producing countries of the Middle East know how important and crucial the singularity of their resources is to their wellbeing and the fate of the world. The oil producing nations are informed of the significant external influences associated with the production, transportation, distribution and marketing of their resources.
However, civil unrest, political upheavals, wars, tribal tension, natural disasters are also factors that seem to have impact on the production of these resources in the region. The Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, the Gulf War in the 1990s, the invasion of Iraq in 2001 by a US lead coalition forces caused just to name a few have significant decreases on the net production of these natural resources and also negatively impacted on the local and global prices of oil and other natural resources.
Besides petroleum, the production and utilization of natural gas have been the epicenter of economic mineral activities in the Middle East (Held, 2003). The region also contains significant amount of mineral deposits that caused attention to be shifted on the region. For example, Turkey, Iran and Cyprus all lies along the mineralized Fold Belt that has long produced significant amount of solid minerals. Fold Belts are usually located in areas where two plates collide as a result of plates’ movement along subduction zones. Jordan, Syria, Israel, Egypt and Iraq produce potential amounts of phosphate from the Dead Sea; whereas, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are planning to revive and expand the mining of solid minerals in the form of crystalline.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Ethics, Human Conduct and Values: Slavery’s Pleasant Homes

Ethics, Human Conduct and Values:
Slavery’s Pleasant Homes
Slavery’s Pleasant Homes told by L. M. Child is a sorrowful story that presents a clear picture of how racism, slavery, marriage, and classism as institutions were used by Frederic Dalcho to oppress and humiliate George, Rosa, Mars and Marion. The purpose of this paper is to discuss, investigate and analyze all the major elements in the story and how these elements can be linked to the various characters such as Frederic and George Dalcho, Mars, Marion and Rosa. This paper seeks to investigate who is morally culpable for perpetrating the worst thing that humanity has ever encounter. It is also my goal to recommend possible power structures that can be substituted for those  which existed in the story. I also attempt to address current sexist, racist and classist practices that are demonstrated in the United States and how these practices promote and encourage oppression, male supremacy, violence, and the exploitation of the pow…

A Classical Theory Paper on The Movie "Brazil."

Source: URL: http://www.flickeringmyth.com/2013/02/the-terry-gilliam-retrospective-part-3.html

The Criterion Edition of the 1985 movie known as ‘Brazil’ detailed significant classical theoretical concepts of Max Weber. The paper discussed how specific scenes and dialogues in the movie are related to Weber’s view of the world from a theoretical perspective.


Source:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Wh2b1eZFUM Weber (1864-1920) was a pessimistic classical theorist unlike Karl Marx (1818-1883) who was more optimistic about events occurring in society. He believes that society will gradually become difficult and there is nothing that we can do to fix it. His theory was based on two ultimate themes which are reflected in his entire theoretical thesis: firstly, “the emergence of capitalism as the dominant form of organization in the West and secondly, the relationship between ideas and actions” (McQuaid, summer 1 Lecture, 09). These two components of Weber’s theoretical works were reflective…

Regenerative Agriculture through Drip Irrigation Systems, Three-Sisters Garden Model and Small-scale Animal Farming: A Reflection from the Past

Drip Irrigation installed about 30cm away from raised-beds at a height of 1m. Source: RESPECT Ghana
The world is presently experiencing major changes that have been largely linked to anthropogenic activities and these changes influence the climate systems, leads to variations in the Earth's climate systems. “Global Warming” is causing many devastating changes in the earth’s global climate systems which also have significant implications on landforms, biodiversity, water systems, and atmospheric system. There is a need to take drastic actions now, if our species is to survive throughout the next 25 years. In order to continue to survive as a species, there is a need for us to become more proactive both at the local, national, and international levels on how we use our energy sources for a more sustainable future. A future that not only define our species, but also take into careful account our neighbors the plants, animals, water, land, air, and all those microscopic living and non-l…