Skip to main content

Middle East Studies: Patterns of Time: Historical-Geographical Foundation

Jenkins Macedo
Prof. Eskandari
February 17, 2010
Chapter 3

Patterns of Time: Historical-Geographical Foundation

This chapter was my favorite, because it brought back to my knowledge what I learned about the Middle East several years ago in another cause related to the historical developments of the Holy Land before and after biblical periods.

The current geographic location upon which the Middle East is situated has been in existence since the discovery of humans’ civilization. It can be argued that the Middle East is the beginning place of human civilization, which started around the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in ancient Mesopotamia.
The region encompasses successive cultures, kingdoms and empires and also serves as the birthplace of the three main world religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islamism) and diverse languages (Towel of Babel). Throughout the history of the Middle East, past cultures, economic influences and empires can still be detected from ancient remains that were left behind. In the Middle East, the past is always becomes present. The evidence of the past relating to powerful cultures, empires and kingdoms are brought back to life through archaeological discoveries of ancient remains that guide us back to the past and points to the future.

Certain sites in the Middle East in the past had very significant religious influences and these same areas became the epicenter for later groups who continued in the steps of their ancestors. The annual pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina by the Muslims faithful in fulfillment of their religious duties is one of such examples. However, multiple religious groups use some sites together and this in most cases led to disputes and subsequent wars. Nevertheless, over the years, the Middle East also developed several infrastructures such as irrigation systems, transportation routes, and agricultural structures like the terraces for farm animals. Also, the use of natural resources in the region increased significantly as human population in the region increased. Culture and Art are also enriching in each society in the Middle East as every city and town has a distinct cultural makeup from each other. With the assistance of archaeological and excavation works done in the Middle East, we are able to discovered the magnificent past of the region, which shares light on the present. However, the illegal excavation and trading of ancient artifacts of the region on the black-market without due respect to the people and their cultures is a shame to humanity.

Historically, the Middle East played and is still playing a significant role in global politics. The region hosted the seats of some of the world’s powerful and influential kingdoms and empires. Some of the most important and significant kingdoms, which existed in the region and played important roles in shaping the cultures, economy, military and trade included but not limited to the Akkadians subdued the Sumerians in 2335 BCE originating from the Arabian Peninsula. The Gutians of the Zagros Mountains in about 2200 BCE later overran the Akkadians. The Sumerians reunited with the Akkadians and established their stronghold at Ur, but later reached their peak in 2000 BCE. This gives rise to another Semitic group to be established; that is, the Babylonians. Under one of the most influential Kings in the Middle East, Hammurabi, the Babylonians controlled all of Mesopotamia. The Babylonian Empire played an important role in the historical, cultural and military development of Mesopotamia for about 2,000 years. In about 539 BCE, the Babylonian Empire fell to the rise winds of the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great. The Persian Empire lasted for about 200 years before crumbling to horses of Alexander The Great in between 334 and 326 BCE. Alexander served his empire for only three years before he died of high fever at the age of thirty-three. His military commanders then divided his Kingdom. Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires emerged to be influential in Egypt and the Middle East. The Roman Empire was the next very important empire that emerged to control the affairs of the Middle East after the fall of Alexander’s empire and those of his Generals.


Popular posts from this blog

Ethics, Human Conduct and Values: Slavery’s Pleasant Homes

Ethics, Human Conduct and Values:
Slavery’s Pleasant Homes
Slavery’s Pleasant Homes told by L. M. Child is a sorrowful story that presents a clear picture of how racism, slavery, marriage, and classism as institutions were used by Frederic Dalcho to oppress and humiliate George, Rosa, Mars and Marion. The purpose of this paper is to discuss, investigate and analyze all the major elements in the story and how these elements can be linked to the various characters such as Frederic and George Dalcho, Mars, Marion and Rosa. This paper seeks to investigate who is morally culpable for perpetrating the worst thing that humanity has ever encounter. It is also my goal to recommend possible power structures that can be substituted for those  which existed in the story. I also attempt to address current sexist, racist and classist practices that are demonstrated in the United States and how these practices promote and encourage oppression, male supremacy, violence, and the exploitation of the pow…

A Classical Theory Paper on The Movie "Brazil."

Source: URL:

The Criterion Edition of the 1985 movie known as ‘Brazil’ detailed significant classical theoretical concepts of Max Weber. The paper discussed how specific scenes and dialogues in the movie are related to Weber’s view of the world from a theoretical perspective.

Source: Weber (1864-1920) was a pessimistic classical theorist unlike Karl Marx (1818-1883) who was more optimistic about events occurring in society. He believes that society will gradually become difficult and there is nothing that we can do to fix it. His theory was based on two ultimate themes which are reflected in his entire theoretical thesis: firstly, “the emergence of capitalism as the dominant form of organization in the West and secondly, the relationship between ideas and actions” (McQuaid, summer 1 Lecture, 09). These two components of Weber’s theoretical works were reflective…

Regenerative Agriculture through Drip Irrigation Systems, Three-Sisters Garden Model and Small-scale Animal Farming: A Reflection from the Past

Drip Irrigation installed about 30cm away from raised-beds at a height of 1m. Source: RESPECT Ghana
The world is presently experiencing major changes that have been largely linked to anthropogenic activities and these changes influence the climate systems, leads to variations in the Earth's climate systems. “Global Warming” is causing many devastating changes in the earth’s global climate systems which also have significant implications on landforms, biodiversity, water systems, and atmospheric system. There is a need to take drastic actions now, if our species is to survive throughout the next 25 years. In order to continue to survive as a species, there is a need for us to become more proactive both at the local, national, and international levels on how we use our energy sources for a more sustainable future. A future that not only define our species, but also take into careful account our neighbors the plants, animals, water, land, air, and all those microscopic living and non-l…